Sunday, September 20, 2015

David Cope on Editing Bridges Across the Pacific: A Chinese American Empathy Anthology; Interviewed by Kirpal Gordon

Poets approaching the Continental Divide on the Fouth of July Trail, 1994

Note:  This interview took place over a period of 10 days at the end of August, 2015, conducted via email and with time for reflection before response.  In addition, I have developed extensive lists of Works Consulted and some translations of Chinese poetry into English, many of which figure in the work here. My thanks to Kirpal for his thoughtful questions, and to Jim Cohn and my daughter Jane Cope, for their suggestions.   DC

KP: I just got wind of your new project, 100 Best Chinese and American Empathy Poems. Although I have not yet seen the Chinese poets, I found the selected American poets to be one of the more diverse collections of talent in any anthology I have read; for example:  Gary Snyder, Nancy Mercado, Sam Hamill, W. Todd Kaneko, Anne Waldman, Yusef Komunyakaa, Sharon Olds, Joanne Kyger and others. That's quite a range. How did this book come about and what was the most difficult part: getting permissions from presses or translating to and from Chinese?
DC:  First, diversity is a central component in the selection process and as I work on this interview, Jim Cohn and I are still in the stages of selection and permission to reprint the poems.  While most of the poets are already on board with permissions, we are working through the requests with several poets’ publishers, including some of those you’ve named.  Thus, we’re not yet at the stage of contracting with a publisher; editor and translator Zhang Ziqing of the Institute of Foreign Literature at Nanjing University can’t make a deal until we have a completed manuscript, and this problem is complicated by the fact that he may have to translate a poet’s poem with no certainty that the poet will be included.  So we’re at what I guess we’d call the “on hold for now” stage, negotiating and awaiting decisions, patient but persistent. Re translation:  from my own experience of working with Zhang, I can say that he is a meticulous professional when it comes to making sure that he translates each poem properly; he’ll pepper the poet with questions until he’s sure of what the poem “does” in English, and then work with it in Chinese.  The process will, in any case, be a long one; Zhang is currently updating the Chinese selection by including more women poets, for example, and he has reservations about some of our selections, which to his mind don’t truly fit the mode of the empathy poem as defined in China.  Jim is also going through the English translations of the Chinese poets and giving Zhang his critiques of the translations as poems in English. 

Jim & Isabella Cohn

How this book came about:  The historical connection is a wildly turning path involving editors, poets, translators, and scholars; it begins with Allen Ginsberg’s 1984 visit to China, develops in the translations of Kerouac and Ginsberg by Professor Wen Chu-an at Sichuan University, and grows toward our generation in Wen Chu-an’s earlier connection to Vernon Frazer’s work and later, with Jim Cohn in his efforts to develop an anthology which Wen could translate.  Even during the period when Cohn and Frazer were working simultaneously with Wen, neither knew of the other until much later in the work.  Zhang Ziqing notes that, among the various groups of American poets who have visited China, Frazer attended the 2004 “Beat Meets East:  an International Interdisciplinary Conference on the Age of Spontaneity” (Dialogue 66), a conference made possible by the “vision and commitment” of Professor Wen Chu-an and Professor Bill Lawlor  (Ball).  The spirit of the conference was established in Gordon Ball’s keynote address exploring the influence of the East on American literary masters, and particularly the Chinese influence on the Beats, especially in the poems of Bai Juyi and Allen Ginsberg.  After the conference, Frazer went on to read his poems in both Beijing and Nanjing (Zhang, Dialogue 66).  Most importantly, Ball’s address and Zhang’s “Dialogue” establish that both Wen Chu-an and Zhang Ziqing were at the same conference, and that Zhang’s connection with Frazer begins here:  he notes that on the day after Vernon’s reading, he drove Frazer and his wife around Nanjing, showing them the sights.  Later,  Vernon published The Selected Poems of Post-Beat Poets in Beijing (2008), and Chinese poet Lan Lan noted that Vernon’s anthology was warmly received in China, that it was seen as “a kind of new poetry which is a continuation and development of Beat poetry after the death of Allen Ginsberg” (quoted in Zhang , Dialogue 67). 
Also in 2004, Peter Hale of the Allen Ginsberg Trust gave Jim Gordon Ball’s phone number, and Ball gave Jim the email address of Wen Chu-an. Jim wrote to ask if they could work together on an anthology introducing Chinese readers to translations of postbeat American poets “after receiving a copy of his 2001 Chinese/ English bilingual edition of Howl: Allen Ginsberg: Selected Poems (1947-1997) as a gift  from Beat generation book collector Walt Smith” (Cohn, “All Loves”).  Jim wrote Wen on 8 September 2004 with this request (Cohn, Email to Wen);  the suggestion worked, and by December of the same year, Jim supplied Wen with a contents, description of the proposed project, a revised introduction, and bios.  He suggested that he’d review the text one more time before sending that, and noted that he still had work to do on the acknowledgements. After a good beginning, there was a long hiatus when he no longer received answers to his queries, and in 2009, Vernon Frazer shared the news that Wen had died of a heart attack. 
Zhang notes that Wen Chu-an kept “in close touch with me since the 1980s.” Zhang was “an editor on contemporary American literature in English Language for Contemporary Foreign Literature, one of the few major journals in this field in China,” and he supported Wen’s introduction of Postbeat poetry “by publishing his essay with his translation of some Postbeat poems for the first time in China.” Wen also asked Zhang “to proof-read his translation of [Frazer’s] Selected Poems of Post-Beat Poets” and introduced Wen to Chu Chen, his publisher. He notes, “unfortunately, his sudden death interrupted the anthology. As a friend of his, I had to continue his project with writing a preface and adding a few more Postbeat poets. Then Vernon introduced you and Jim to me when I began to add a chapter on Postbeat poetry to my book A History of 20th Century American Poetry” (Zhang, email to David Cope).  Sometime after Wen Chu-an’s death, Zhang’s first email appeared in Jim’s inbox:  "May I first introduce myself to you? A friend of Vernon and the late Chu-An as well as Anne [Waldman], and a translator of part of Selected Poems of Post-Beat Poets edited by Vernon Frazer, which came out in China, 2008. I met Ginsberg twice. First I was invited by him to attend his poetry reading together with Anne Waldman in New York from Harvard University in the winter of 1993, and then went to meet him in San Francisco from Berkeley when he signed his name on his new book of poems for the readers in a big bookstore, 1994."

Frazer had asked Zhang to open the Museum of American Poetics link to the Postbeat Poets Activist Scholarship Project, and in particular to read Jim’s essay, “Postbeat Poets” (Cohn, Postbeat).  The relationship began with Zhang’s questions about Jim’s essay; Jim later collaborated with him, “adding a number of 20th and 21st century Chinese poets to MAP’s international exhibits” (All Loves).  The originally envisioned anthology eventually fell by the wayside, but Zhang included a chapter on the postbeat poets in his upcoming two-volume study of contemporary American poetry, with translations and discussion of some of our poems.  He eventually suggested the idea for this bilingual empathy anthology of Chinese, Chinese-American, and American poets, and Jim and I began collecting American poems around 2013, realizing later that we needed a more particular definition of the brief Chinese empathy poem.  We’ve all been quite busy in the period after 2013, and made little progress on the idea until several months back, when Zhang began choosing from my poems for a selection that he intended to translate and publish.  Thus began a three month period of questions and answers concerning my lines,  words, and phrases, all with the idea of “getting it right” in Chinese.  I suggested that I could begin working on the empathy anthology toward the end of July or beginning of August, and I went to it with a fervor.  And here we are, at this stage of trying to complete a few last selections and obtain a few permissions. The connection back to Allen’s 1984 visit remains a fascinating, wildly turning path with many blind leads, wrong turns, and a few highlights.

Allen Ginsberg's Kousa Dogwood

KP: Is it fair to say that you are one of the living practitioners of the Objectivist tradition of American poetry, and at age 67, you are indeed one its elders? How did Charles Reznikoff and company strike you as a young poet & reader of verse? What was the Allen Ginsberg connection and how did your poetry and scholarship prepare you to edit and deliver an antho like 100 Best Chinese and American Empathy Poems. I take it the title is a nod to Kenneth Rexroth, yes?

DC:  There are several questions here, so let’s take them one at a time.

Living practitioner of the objectivist tradition:  Reznikoff and William Carlos Williams were the two 20th century poets whose work gave me the tools to develop my own approach to the art—Charles for his focus on those most vulnerable in our society, for his close attention to the specifics of his subjects, the psychologically astute use of images, the tightly constructed narrative in plain English, and Williams for his endless experimentation with free verse forms and closeness to intense human experience, ranging from the mental leaps that inform poems like “The Last Words of My English Grandmother” or “For Eleanor and Bill Monahan,” his occasional crazy jazz line (“Shoot it Jimmy!), chant-based poems (“The Catholic Bells”) or heavily accented off-balance rhythms (“The Kermess”).  Then, too, he was a master of the open field (see pages 54-61 of Paterson, for example),  and his explorations of what he called “the variable foot” (explained in a letter to Richard Eberhart, Selected Letters 326-27) showed an appreciation
for the silent count worthy of Satie.  So they and Whitman, Shakespeare, Chaucer and Dante—all completed my poetic “toolbox” of technique.  Dante showed me ways to make multi-layered verse that could satisfy both a curious 10th grader and the Dantescan scholar busy ferreting out the allusions and historical references, a seamless narrative honoring all who open the book.  I have lived and breathed
Shakespeare for over fifty years, spending my last twenty years teaching his work at two colleges—and his language often silently informs mine.

So yes, Reznikoff’s objectivism and WCW’s great experimental imagist verse are the root and foundation of my own work, though I refuse categories and will work in whatever approach to a poem seems most appropriate to its subject or if that’s how it “comes to me.”  The idea is to write carefully crafted poems that honor their subjects as they are.
Robert Duncan, Charles Reznikoff, George Oppen & Carl Rakosi

How the objectivist poets struck me as a youth:   I had
copies of Oppen’s Of Being Numerous and Reznikoff’s By
the Waters of Manhattan:  Selected Verse during my late
teen years, but really got the full dose in 1973 at the National
Poetry Festival at Allendale, Michigan, when Charles,
George Oppen, and Carl Rakosi were invited to read and do
a colloquium together, queried by Allen Ginsberg and
Robert Duncan, with occasional remarks by Kenneth
Rexroth.  Sue and I also walked out to the midsummer
bonfire with George and Mary Oppen, he quiet while she
recounted their youth, escaping to France where the peasants
had great fires lit up in the hills, a gift tale, I think, from an
older couple to two young kids still in the flush of our first
years together.  George really came alive at his reading later,
as did Carl, but to my mind, Charles cut through everything
that had been said throughout the conference with his
trenchant depression-era realism, his poems read with a
quiet, steely voice, confronting the horrors of hunger,
poverty and homelessness, as well as labor under non-union
conditions.  The subjects were honored for their innate
dignity even in struggle and loss.  Some months later, when I
decided to begin publishing my indie poetry mag, Big
Scream, my poet mentor in that endeavor, Eric Greinke,
gave me a copy of Charles’s Five Groups of Verse, self-
published in 1927 and signed in 1973—it has remained one
of the great treasures of my personal library to this day.
The Allen Ginsberg connection:  I’ve already covered the wild turning history that begins with Allen’s 1984 visit to China, which introduced Chinese scholars and poets to his own work and to American poems—including some of my own short poems from Quiet Lives—that he felt they would appreciate.

The opening he began also brought younger American poets together for conferences in China, which led to Vernon Frazer’s anthology of postbeat poets, and indirectly led to the making of this anthology.  It’s a strange but exciting thought that, even though dead for eighteen years now, he is still showing younger generations paths for their work to create shared connections and compassion.

Looking back, Charles Reznikoff’s poems functioned as a shared love between Allen and me. After the 1973 conference, I changed my life in a variety of significant ways, including starting my work as an indie editor and publisher. When I published my Stars, a 36 page mimeo chapbook with poems that drew from Reznikoff’s and Williams’s sense of compression and close observation of working lives, I tried to honor my co­-workers and the people in the tough working class neighborhood where I lived, and in those ghetto neighborhoods where I worked both as school custodian and apartment clean-up man.  I wrote Allen and sent him the chapbook, and he wrote back, asking for twelve copies and enclosing a check, also asking about me.  I wrote back and explained my work as a factory worker, custodian and apartment cleaner, and asked that one copy be sent to Reznikoff—he in turn noted that Charles had died several months before, but wanted to know all about my fascination with him.  Thus began a twenty-some year correspondence which also included publication opportunities, visits to Naropa and Brooklyn College, and especially to the 1987 objectivist conference, where I was paired to read with Carl Rakosi, still one of the greatest honors of my career.
Charles Reznikoff
Poetry and scholarship as preparation for this empathy anthology:  my work as a post-graduate student taught me how to do deep scholarship in a subject, and that has been central to working in a disciplined and careful way.  I have read Chinese poetry from the time when I first encountered Ezra Pound’s work while still a high school student, but I was not a scholar of Chinese poetry and in many ways still consider myself a rank beginner in the field, feeling my way through questions to Zhang Ziqing and to my friend Wang Ping even as I have embarked on a reading list that will keep me busy for months and years to come.  It does not particularly help that I have no knowledge of the Chinese language, though I have learned a great deal about their poetics once placed in this position.  I’m also fortunate to have a first-class working editing relationship with Professor Zhang.  He has translated twenty-four of my poems at this point, and I have been continuously impressed with his questions—pointing out words or phrases that either don’t work in Chinese or need clarification.  I’ve been forthcoming with him, changing or explaining words to increase clarity in English and which give him a means to approach the poems in Chinese, and along the way I’ve observed differences in our language processes and, in particular, I’ve come to appreciate his intense curiosity and willingness to work with me to be sure he gets it right. 

Per the editing, I suppose there is the basic eye one needs for a great variety of quality work, as befits my forty-one years editing and publishing my magazine (see my recent interview, conducted by Jim Cohn, at Big Bridge (Cope, Moving On).  Also, there were three anthologies that I edited and shepherded into print earlier in my career.
The first of these, Nada Poems (Nada, 1988) involved seventeen poets whom I had met during my visits to Naropa, New York, Hoboken and New Brunswick, etc., and the volume was paid for via the huge check I was given for winning a 1988 award in literature from the American Academy/Institute of Arts and Letters (now, simply the American Academy of Arts and Letters) for my second book, On the Bridge.  Jim Cohn, Joel Kuszai, Chris Ide and I learned how to work with Macs in a 30 minute session at a time when emails and the internet itself were still a computer geek’s dream and few poets could be bothered with computers.  We worked like devils and had the manuscript file ready after a coffee-fueled all-night session in the Michigan State University computer lab.  Distribution continued for years, until after two decades, almost all of the 1500 copies were gone.  
After this came Sunflowers & Locomotives:  Songs for Allen, a 58 page anthology of paeans, mementos and elegiac poems for Allen Ginsberg.  After Allen died, I was among those who served as a press contact for him, answering questions from reporters calling from across the nation.  Later, I was deluged with poems from friends and people I barely knew or had never met, and in short order I had the makings of an anthology.  Chris Funkhouser shared his classic portrait of Allen on his 12th Street fire escape for the front cover, the famed  Boulder photographer Steve Miles contributed a fine portrait of Allen with a very young Peter Hale for the back, and a xerox of Allen’s handwritten transcription of Blake’s “Nurse’s Song” became the final page of this one, a labor of love for a great poet who happened to be a superb friend as well. 

The last, and most ambitious of these projects, was Song of the Owashtanong, a 185 page collection of sixteen of the most gifted poets from my hometown, put together over a period of a year and paid for with grants, published by Detroit poet M. L. Liebler’s Ridgeway Press.  This work, edited and published during the same period as I was shepherding a four day Grand Rapids Poets’ Conference, taught me the importance of using every available minute to make sure the thing came out properly.

Thus all of the above prepared  me well, not only for the selection, editing, and documentation, but also for the hard work involved—and the constant need for patience and flexibility.

Title as nod to Rexroth?  Actually, I had nothing to do with the original title—this was Zhang’s idea.  We have since amended the title to Bridges Across the Pacific: A Chinese-American Empathy Anthology.  The project is ultimately his, as he is translator of both Chinese poets into English and American poets into Chinese.  Further, he’s the one arranging publication and distribution in China.  Jim’s and my tasks are limited to finding 50 poets whose short work (10-20 lines or so) fits the definition of a Chinese empathy poem, as well as critiquing the English translations of the Chinese poets.  In the process of selection, I wrote a preface for the American approach to this kind of poem, defining it in terms of our imagist and objectivist principles, which both reify the Chinese model and represent a practice that allows for great stylistic variation within our traditions.  Rexroth is, of course, important to many of us in this generation; both Antler and I, for example, have written elegies for him, and many revere him for his 100 Poems from the Chinese and Love and the Turning Year.
KP: So far, the American strand of this collection does not seem especially political in its thrust, and some may find a flaw in that fact, given the often unsettled state of affairs between China and the USA. Still, it's no exaggeration to say that we live in interesting times, yes?
DC: There’s a long history of philosophical and political disagreements, outright warfare during the Korean conflict, and cultural and historical critiques offered by both sides—enough pain to go around in the continuing fact that we humans perpetrate horrors on each other.  American political poetry has been available in China for years, as in the case of Allen’s Howl, so they know our predilections in that sense.  There’s also the American tendency to criticize without reflection, smugly pointing the finger at another’s shortcomings while ignoring our own, including our incessant wars and war profiteering, the endless parade  of school shootings and police murders of black men, the push to destroy environmental treasures and indeed, planetary balance even as politicians decry climate change as fake while dancing to the tunes played by their corporate masters; being sanctimonious about other nations’ political and military behaviors while forgetting our own long history of near-genocide and theft of lands from the first peoples of this land—even today, in the “sale” of the sacred lands of the Apaches to a foreign mining company that will desecrate the land for the sake of their profits.  Gandhi once said, “turn the searchlight inward,” and that seems quite a propos of this aspect of the subject.

Both nations have much to answer for—yet as an elder who has watched these sorts of things all my life, I look across the globe to Zhang Ziqing and see a brother with a good heart and a work ethic that challenges my own—his hope is to explore empathy, the ability to understand or share the feelings of another—with a corresponding wish to find our common humanity.  I guess, in the end, I am hopeful that this project will bear good fruit.  The world sees too little of this kind of thing nowadays.

KP: In reading the American poems, nature and the 'ecology' of poetic form are singing reverence, remember, renew, receive, return. The empathy is grounded in the basic, the particular; surprise and awakening. Is the "eco nature poem" not one with Han Shan, October in the Railroad Earth, Rakosi and Reznikoff, Chuang Tzu?
DC: Yes, in many ways, especially in the sense of lands and seas, flora and fauna, all the particulars of this life as gifts, the place and the beings that give this journey an awakening quality during the brief time we have.  I do think the contemporary “eco nature poem” has one characteristic that many of these others may not have:  the sense that the particulars described in the poem—that natural beauty which can give form to our deepest aspirations, even in our suffering—could be irretrievably lost through wasteful and cruel human behavior in our march to carve up the planet, our blindness brought on by profit-driven greed, the insanity of warfare, overpopulation, etc.  Even when it is not directly stated, that awareness informs even the most apparently innocent nature poems in our era. 
As noted earlier, the poems in our selection grow from the Chinese definition of the “empathy poem” as provided by Zhang Ziqing in his introduction, and in some of its western equivalents, as I pointed out in my introduction to the American poems.  “Empathy” as found in this particular tradition is certainly a method of awakening reverence and renewal;  it is not mere pastoral with its gamboling sheep and roll-in-the-hay romance.  There are times when one returns to the mountain or the riverbank as a means to recover the awareness of what we humans have so often lost in the rush of our technology-driven “civilized” mode of living.  At times, the wilderness serves to heal and renew, particularly when one recovers the cultural awareness of traditions that connect humans to a spirituality which saw the sacredness of this place as part of daily practice.

It can also involve the revealing image of the world being degraded—empathy for Lake Michigan, for example, in Charles Reznikoff’s poem, even when the focus is on human carelessness and environmental cruelty in the “green depths”:  “They have built red factories along Lake Michigan, and the purple refuse coils like congers in the green depths” (19).  Sometimes, too, experience may shape different kinds of responses to the green world, as noted by Camille T. Dungy in her introduction to Black Nature and by Yusef Komunyakaa in his classic essay, “Dark Waters.”  Dungy notes that “many black writers simply do not look at their environment from the same perspective” as caucasian writers—for many, it is “an environment steeped in a legacy of violence, forced labor, torture, and death” (xxi).  Komunyakaa points out that African American communities are exposed to sickness, cancer, and early death as a result of exposure to chemical pollution, pesticides, etc. both on the job and from polluting industries near their neighborhoods.  There is a kind of empathy here, but it is located in the populations suffering as a result of an hostile environment.
Perhaps the most important difference between the older nature-based poems and the kinds of empathy and ecopoems in our selection, though, is that recovery of awareness often begins in the memory of elder traditions in which humans were understood as a part of the larger world.  This is especially true of Maria Mazziotti Gillan’s and Nancy Mercado’s work in this anthology, and in two poets whose work I hope will eventually be a part of this project—Joseph Bruchac and Linda Hogan.  Hogan’s encounter with the sea turtle recalls her ancestors’ wisdom:  the turtles as keepers of a door to another realm, the encounter part of “a path where beings truly meet.”  Bruchac tells a story of mountain climbing, turning to the reader to ask, “if you do manage to come back down, what gift do you bring, what hunger may greet you, and to which side will you return?”  

Mt. Audobon: Schwartz, Cope & dog Josh

KP: What is your official status with the university? At 67 years young, are you hoping to teach less, write more, retire, live forever, edit and/or write more books? What local projects are you engaged in and how do these square with your overall sense of mission as poet and scholar?
DC:  I retired from my position as an adjunct professor at Western Michigan University in 2004; I had given up pursuit of a doctorate degree there in 1997 after Allen died (I was very close, completing 30 hours of graduate classes beyond my masters degree, and in initial stages of preparing for my thesis).  The department then hired me to teach an evening Shakespeare class, which I thoroughly enjoyed until the hour long commute became too much for me.  My relation with my undergraduate school, the University of Michigan, continues to this day through twice a year visits to the Special Collections Library, where I make additions to my archive, The David Cope Papers. 
I retired from my full-time job at Grand Rapids Community College in 2013 after forty years of work, eighteen as a custodian and twenty-two as a professor.   I began as a night shift custodian at the poorest school in the city’s ghetto, and ended as senior Shakespeare professor, curriculum developer, gadfly, union representative, and poet laureate of the city of Grand Rapids.  There were seven years in the 90s when I was teaching six to seven classes per semester, attending graduate school by night, and raising my family of three children—and yet, while I was living on the run, I never let any of it get in the way of whatever my poetry career offered me back then.  The professor job was also a means to bring poets (Allen, Anne Waldman, Jim Cohn, Antler and Jeff Poniewaz, Carmen Bugan, Diane Wakoski) to the college for readings and colloquia, as well as a way to organizing a Pablo Neruda Centennial Celebration, a Women in the Arts Conference, and at the last, the aforementioned poets’ conference and local anthology.  In addition, I continued publishing my Big Scream magazine yearly, and gave readings when invited. 
I have not taught classes in over two years, and plan to avoid doing that kind of work altogether.  My three years of working in a factory and eighteen years as a custodian showed me that we are all cogs in wheels such as these.   I had known from early childhood that I was going to be a poet, and took these jobs to support myself and my family, to “keep the wolf from my door,” while at the same time always aware that retirement would give me time to ride my bike, do a proper job of gardening and forestry on my small plot of land, try to get The Invisible Keys (selected poems) and The Scythe (later poems) published, and do projects that I can believe in, like this one. 

Works Consulted

Ball, Gordon.  Keynote Address,  Beat Meets East:  International Conference on Literature in the Age of Spontaneity.  Chenghu, Sichuan, China:  Sichuan University.  3 June 2004.

Bruchac, Joseph.  “CLIMBING.” 2003, 2014.

Cohn, Jim. “All Loves Are The Way Onward:  Interview With Kirpal Gordon.”   The Museum Of American Poetics.

- - - - .  Email to Wen Chu-an.  8 September 2004.

- - - -.  “Postbeat Poets Activist Scholarship Project.”  The Museum of American Poetics. 
[Scroll down and click for Jim’s essay, “Postbeat Poets.”]

Cope, David.  “An extraordinary volume of poems.” Review of Wang Ping’s Ten Thousand Waves.  Paterson Literary Review 43 (2015-2016):  265-268.  Online at Wings Press (scroll down):

- - - -, interviewed by Jim Cohn. “Moving On:  41 Years of Big Scream / Nada Press.”  Big Bridge 18.

- - - - .  Quiet Lives.  Foreword by Allen Ginsberg.  Totowa, New Jersey:  Humana, 1983.

- - - -, ed.  Nada Poems.  Grand Rapids:  Nada, 1988.

- - - -, ed.  Song of the Owashtanong:  Grand Rapids Poetry in the 21st Century.  Roseville, MI: Ridgeway, 2013.

- - - -, ed.  Sunflowers & Locomotives:  Songs for Allen.  Grand Rapids:  Nada, 1998.

Dickinson, Emily.  The Complete Poems of Emily Dickinson.  Ed. Thomas H. Johnston. Eleventh printing.  Boston and Toronto:  Little, Brown, 1960.

Dungy, Camille T.. ed.  Black Nature:  Four Centuries of African-American Nature Poetry. Athens:  University of Geogia Press, 2009.

Fisher-Wirth, Ann, and Laura-Gray Street, eds.  The Ecopoetry Anthology.  San Antonio: Trinity University Press, 2013.

Frazer, Vernon.  “Extending the Age of Spontaneity to a New Era:  Post-Beat Poets in America.”

Beat  Meets East:  Presentations from a Conference.  Big Bridge 10.  Ed.  Michael Rothenberg.
- - - - . “Post-Beat Poetry in China.”  Preface.  Selected Poems of Post-Beat Poets.  Beijing: Shanghai Century Publications, 2008.  Big Bridge 14 (2009): 

Ginsberg, Allen.  Clear Seeing Poetics.  Unpublished classroom anthology, selected by Allen Ginsberg; includes some of the poems he taught in China.  Undated.

- - - - .  Wales Visitation.” Collected Poems 1947-1980.  New York et al:  Harper & Row, 1984.  480-482, especially line 10, page 480.

 - - - - .  White Shroud:  Poems 1980-1985.  New York:  Harper & Row, 1986. 61-68.

H. D.  Collected Poems 1912-1944.  Ed. Louis L. Martz.  New York:  New Directions, 1986.

Huang Jie Han.  “On the Rewritings of On the Road in China.”  Guizhou University.  Masters Thesis.  Abstract.  2008.

Jones, Jim.  “How the Beats Came to China.”  Gadfly Online.  Charlottesville, Va.:  Gadfly Productions, 1998-2009.

Katz, Eliot.  Email to David Cope.  5 August 2015.

Komunyakaa, Yusef.  “Dark Waters.”  The Colors of Nature:  Culture, Identity, and the Natural World.  Alison Hawthorne Deming and Lauret  E. Savoy, eds.  Minneapolis:  Milkweed, 2011.

Meyer, Mike.  “The World’s Biggest Book Market.”  With quotes from Wen Chu’an on Ginsberg and Kerouac.  The New York Times (13 March 2005).  N.p..  A Glimpse of the World: Snippets.

Min yu.  “Allen Ginsberg and China.”  Theory and Practice in Language Studies 2.4 (April, 2012):  850-855.  Via Academy Publisher.

Pound, Ezra.  “The Jewel Stairs’ Grievance.”  Personae.  New Directions, 1926, 1935, 1971. 

Rakosi, Carl.  “No One Talks About This.”  The Collected Poems of Carl Rakosi.  Orono:  The National Poetry Foundation / University of Maine, 1986. 

Reznikoff, Charles.  Poems (#6).  The Poems of Charles Reznikoff 1918-1975,  Ed. Seamus Cooney.  Boston:  Black Sparrow/David R. Godine, 2005. 19.

Rothenberg, Jerome, ed. and commentary.  Shaking the Pumpkin:  Traditional Poetry of the Indian North Americas.  Garden City:  Doubleday, 1972.
- - - - , ed. and commentary.  Technicians of the Sacred:  A Range of Poetries from Africa,America, Asia & Oceana.  Garden City:  Anchor/Doubleday, 1969. 

Schumacher, Michael.  Dharma Lion:  A Critical Biography of Allen Ginsberg.  New York:  St. Martin’s Griffin, 1992.  681-684.

Vizenour, Gerald, ed.  Summer in the Spring:  Ojibwe Lyric Poems and Tribal Stories.  Revised and enlarged ed.  Minneapolis:  Nodin Press, 1981.

Wang Ping.  Ten Thousand Waves.  San Antonio:  Wings Press, 2014.

- - - - .  Emails to David Cope.  August to 16 September 2015.

Wen Chu-an.  “Letter from China.”  The Blacklisted Journalist.  Letter copyright Al Aronowitz, to whom it was addressed.   2001.

Wen Chu-an, trans.  Howl:  Allen Ginsberg:  Selected Poems (1947-1997).  Sichuan:  Sichuan Literature and Art Publishing House, 2000.

- - - -, trans.  On the Road.  Guilin Shi:  Li Jiang chuban she, 2001.  World Cat:

Whitman, Walt.  Leaves of Grass and Other Writings.  Ed Michael Moon.  New York and London:  Norton, 2001.

Williams, William Carlos.  Paterson.  Revised ed.  New York:  New Directions, 1995.

- - - - .  The Selected Letters of William Carlos Williams.  New York:  New Directions, 1957.  326-327.

Zhang Ziqing.  “A Dialogue between Chinese and American Poets in the New Century:  Their Poetry Reading, Translation and Writing in Collaboration.”  Comparative Literature:  East West 15.2 (Autumn/Winter 2011):  65-81.   Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

- - - - .  Email to David Cope.  17 September 2015.
 - - - - .  Email to Jim Cohn.  5 March 2010

Some Translations from the Chinese

Alley, Rewi, trans.  200 Selected Poems.  By Bai Juyi [a.k.a. Po Chu-i].  Beijing:  New World Press, 1983.  65-66.
Chaves, Jonathan, trans. and ed.  The Columbia Book of Later Chinese Poetry:  Yüan, Ming, And Ch’ing Dynasties (1279-1911).  New York and Guildford:  Columbia U P, 1986.
[see Watson, Burton for other volume in this set].

Graham, A. C., trans.  Poems of the Late T’ang.  Harmondsworth, Baltimore, and Victoria:  Penguin, 1965.

Hamill, Sam, trans.  Crossing the Yellow River:  Three Hundred Poems from the Chinese.  Rochester, N. Y.:  Tiger Bark, 2013. 

Hawkes, David, trans.  The Songs of the South:  An Ancient Chinese Anthology of Poems by Qu Yuan and Other Poets.  London, New York et al:  Penguin, 1985, 2011

Hinton, David, trans.  The Late Poems o Wang An-Shih.  New York:  New Directions, 2015.    
- - - -, trans.  The Mountain Poems of Meng Hao-jan.  New York:  Archipelago, 2004.
- - - -, trans.  The Selected Poems of  Li Po.  New York:  New Directions, 1996.
- - - -, trans.  The Selected Poems of Po Chü-I.  New York:  New Directions, 1999.
- - - -, trans.  The Selected Poems of Tu Fu.  New York:  New Directions, 1989.

- - - -, trans.  The Selected Poems of Wang Wei.  New York, New Directions, 2006.
Ming Di, et al, trans.  New Cathay:  Contemporary Chinese Poetry.  North Adams:  Tupelo Press, 2013.  Online:    

Red Pine (Bill Porter), trans.  The Collected Songs of Cold Mountain.  Revised and expanded ed. Port Townsend:  Copper Canyon, 2000.
- - - -, trans.  Guide to Capturing a Plum Blossom.  By Sun Po-jen. Port Townsend:  Copper Canyon, 2012.

 - - - -,  trans.  Lao’ Tzu’s Taoteching.  Port Townsend:  Copper Canyon, 2009. 

- - - -,  trans.  Poems of the Masters:  China’s Classic Anthology of T’ang and Sung Dynasty Verse.  Mandarin Chinese and English ed.  Port Townsend:  Copper Canyon, 2003.

- - - -,  trans.  The Zen Works of Stonehouse (Shih-wu).  English and Chinese ed.  Port Townsend: Copper Canyon, 2014.

Rexroth, Kenneth, trans.  One Hundred Poems from the Chinese.  New York:  New Directions, 1971.

- - - - , trans.  Love and the Turning Year:  One Hundred More Poems from the Chinese. New York:  New Directions, 1970.

Snyder, Gary.  Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems.  50th Anniversary ed.  Berkeley:  Counterpoint, 2009. [Cold Mountain/Han Shan poems trans. by Gary Snyder].

Watson, Burton, trans. and ed.  The Columbia Book of Chinese Poetry:  From Early Times to the Thirteenth Century.  New York and Guildford:  Columbia U P, 1984.  [See Chaves, Jonathan, for other volume in this set].

Waley, Arthur, trans.  Translations from the Chinese.  New York:  Alfred A. Knopf, 1919, 1940.

Antler & Jeff Poniewaz on the trail

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